Social LCA

PhD and Post Doctorats

Anticipating the Psychosocial Factors Effect in Social LCA.
Federica SILVERI, PhD Student,
Laboratory MRM, Doctoral Institut EDEG

Thesis Commitee

  • Professeur Sophie MIGNON, University Montpellier 2
  • Catherine MACOMBE, IRSTEA,
  • Perrine LANGUET, Val d’Orbieu-UCCOAR
  • Stéphane LE POCHAT, Evea conseil
  • Sonia GRIMBHULER, IRSTEA
  • Denis LOEILLET, CIRAD
  • Ralph ROSENBAUM, IRSTEA
  • Eléonore LOISEAU, IRSTEA

Executive summary

Context

Stress at work is the second cause of health problems in the workplace in the European Union (28% of cases, after back pain) after the European 2000 survey on working conditions (EWCS, 2001). There is a “human cost of workplace stress” that is both different in sectors and this difference depending on the organization of work.

The sectors are not equal in terms of job stress. Significant differences were highlighted by Houtman (2007) for the Netherlands, from two variables “job demand ‘and’ job autonomy ‘, which play a major role in the model-Job Demands-Control Karasek (Karasek and Theorell, 1990).

At a more detailed level than the sector, organizational differences within the product chains also induce differences in employees’ working conditions.

 

Objectives

The purpose of the study is to set up a new theoretical model to allow us to anticipate    damage to health of workers (involved in the life cycle) caused by psychosocial risk factors at work. We will take into account improvements caused by the positive psychosocial factors too. Furthermore, we do not study the effects of pollutants, radiations and other dangerous items, because they have been dealt with in environmental LCA (for some models) in order to account the “Human health” impacts. We study frequent risk factors that are linked with the organisation of work itself in order to assess the causal-effect relationships between psychosocial risk factors and health at work.

The work presents different peculiarities:

  1. The work is based on an unconventional approach. In fact, traditionally, health is considered ex post and based on personal risk factors of individuals.
  2. The anticipatory approach of the work identifies groups of workers considered to be at risk because of psychosocial risk factors to which they are exposed and the personal characteristics are taken into account as “control variables”.

Application

The outputs of the work will contribute to anticipate damages to health through a matrix which help us to find the probability of a certain health problem occurring given a certain stress at work. The matrix will help decision makers to choose the best scenario for the production organisation as far as possible.

The expected results from the work also will strengthen the research program in the social life cycle assessment in order to provide a new “pathway” between psychosocial risk factors work-related and health of workers engaged in the life cycle of the company.

Problematic and context

According to the European 2000 survey on working conditions, work-related stress is the second cause of health problems in the workplace in the European Union (28% of cases after back pain) (EWCS, 2001). There is a “human cost of workplace stress” that is both different in different sectors and differ depending on your organization of work.

The sectors are not equal in terms of job stress. Significant differences were highlighted by Houtman (2007) for the Netherlands, from two variables “job demand ‘and’ job autonomy ‘, which play a major role in the model-Job Demands-Control Karasek (Karasek and Theorell, 1990).

At a more detailed level than sector, organizational differences within the product chains also induce differences in employees’ working conditions.

Target of the thesis

The purpose of the PhD work is to set up one new theoretical model, and an assessment grid, to allow us to anticipate damage to health of workers (involved in the life cycle) caused by psychosocial risk factors at work. We will take into account improvements caused by the positive psychosocial factors too. We do not study the effects of pollutants, radiations and other dangerous items, because they have been dealt with in environmental LCA (for some models) in order to account for the “Human health” impact. We study frequent risk factors that are linked with the organisation of work itself. The outputs of the work will contribute to anticipate damages to health. They will help decision makers to choose the best scenario for the production organisation as far as possible.

Application – Case study

The thesis will implement at least one real case study. The case study will stage two scenarios, involving two distinct organizations for  the same product, among which the company must make a choice. Every organization generates various risk factors and different “risk groups”.

The result of the study will compare the probable effects in both scenarios. Its role is to facilitate decision makers.

Contact : federica.silveri@irstea.fr

 

Travail sur la construction d’un nouveau “pathway” reliant l’inégalité des revenus générés par les activités économiques par un cycle de vie avec les impacts sur la santé au niveau supra-national
Ibrahima BOCOUM, Post-doctorant IRSTEA/UQAM

 Encadrant

  • Jean-Pierre REVERET, UQAM
  • Catherine MACOMBE, IRSTEA

Executive summary

Notre projet de recherche s’inscrit dans la continuité de nos travaux sur la mesure des effets des cycles de vie sur l’inégalité de revenus et la santé à l’échelle nationale. Il existe des cycles de vie qui génèrent des changements socio-économiques importants à l’échelle d’une nation, cependant, dans l’intérêt des Etats et des entreprises, le véritable enjeu du calcul des effets des variations d’inégalité de revenus sur la santé se situe principalement au niveau régional. Les effets d’un cycle de vie de taille usuelle seront, en proportion, plus importants pour une région que pour le pays dans lequel cette région se situe.

Divers travaux récents abondent dans le même sens, à savoir l’existence d’une relation négative entre l’inégalité de revenus mesurée au niveau de différentes collectivités disposant d’une autonomie de création et d’entretien de biens publics sociaux (régions, municipalités, provinces, districts, communautés, etc.), et la santé auto-évaluée des populations locales. Cette relation négative a été vérifiée dans des contextes très variés mais les mécanismes à travers lesquels l’inégalité de revenus affecte la santé varient d’un contexte à un autre.

L’objectif de notre travail est de construire une voie d’impact complète cycle de vie-inégalité de revenus-santé au niveau régional, accompagnée de ses conditions d’usage, en quatre étapes qui sont : 

  • re-calculer économétriquement les coefficients d’élasticité entre l’inégalité de revenus au niveau régional et la perception des individus de leur niveau de santé à partir de données très récentes (idéalement longitudinales) en tenant compte des éventuels effets de retard et des effets selon différents groupes d’âge, 
  • re-tester l’effet de l’investissement dans les biens publics sociaux sur la santé et calculer le degré de compensation des effets de l’inégalité de revenus par les effets des investissements dans les biens publics sociaux, 
  • identifier des outils et des méthodes économiques permettant d’anticiper les changements de répartition des revenus au sein de la population dus aux changements dans les cycles de vie, 
  • illustrer le fonctionnement de la voie d’impact à travers une étude de cas.

Contact : ibbocoum@gmail.com

 

Posts

2017
Silveri, F., Peut-on compenser des conditions de travail nocives ? L’apport du modèle Exigences-Ressources, Revue @grh, 2017/3 n°24.
https://www.cairn.info/revue-@grh.htm
Silveri, F., Macombe C. (2017), « Les normes écologiques et sociales stimulent-elles la créativité de l’entreprise ? », in L’innovation managériale: Les multiples voies d’une spirale vertueuse, cordonné par Villesèque-Dubus, F., Chapellier, P., Mignon, S., et Mazars-Chapelon, A. (2017), Éditions EMS, Paris.
Macombe C. (ed) (2017) Social evaluation of the life cycle, application to the agriculture and agri-food sectors Social LCA – Researcher School Book. Collection Fruitrop Thema – 2017
2016
Di Cesare, S., Silveri, F., Sala, S., Petti, L., 2018. Positive impacts in social life cycle assessment: state of the art and the way forward. Int. J. Life Cycle Assess. 23, 406–421. doi:10.1007/s11367-016-1169-7
2015
Di Cesare, S., Silveri, F., Petti, L. (2015). Positive impacts and Indicator Categories in Social Life Cycle Assessment. Results from a systematic review., in: Sala, S., Vasta, A., Mancini, L., Dewulf, J., Rosenbaum, E. (eds.) 2015, Social Life Cycle Assessment – State of the art and challenges for supporting product policies. European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxemburg pp. 46-53
 11367 Bocoum, I., Macombe, C., Reveret, J.P., 2015. Anticipating impacts on health based on changes in income inequality caused by life cycles. Int. J. Life Cycle Assess. 20, 405–417. doi:10.1007/s11367-014-0835-x
2014
social-lca-in-progress-edition-fruitrop-thema

Bocoum I, Macombe C, Revéret J-P.(2014) Estimating health effects of income inequality changes caused by life cycles : a study at the subnational level, Social LCA in progress in Macombe C., Loeillet D. (eds). 4th SocSem, pre-proceedings, 4th International Seminar in Social LCA, Montpellier, France, November 19th-21st, 2014, FruiTrop Thema eds, Montpellier, pages 134-140

social-lca-in-progress-edition-fruitrop-thema

Macombe C., Loeillet D. (eds) (2014) Social LCA in progress – 4th SocSem CIRAD, IRSTEA, SYKE, ELSA, ELSA PACT, Montpellier, France, November 19th-21st, 2014, Fruitrop Thema, Cirad, Montpellier

 

Seminars

2016
Congrès académique de l’AGRH
Strasbourg, France, 19-21 octobre 2016
    Ecole chercheurs ACV Sociale
Sète, 14 -18 Mars 2016
2015
Rete italiana

 

EXPO 2015
Milan, 6-7 octobre 2015
Catherine MACOMBE « In food supply chain: social LCA, what to do? ».
2014
social-lca-in-progress-edition-fruitrop-thema 4th International Social LCA Seminary
CIRAD, Montpellier, November 2014
DSC_0131_1
SETAC-Basel SETAC
Basel, May 2014
SETAC2014_SSC_01_088

 

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